Tuesday, September 29, 2015

Nausicaa of the Valley of the Wind (1984)

After completing Castle of Cagliostro director Hayao Miyazaki shifted his focus to writing and drawing a graphic novel. It took place in a post-apocalyptic world and featured a young woman named after a princess in Homer’s The Odyssey. The manga turned out to be a big hit, and eventually he was approached to adapt his work for a big screen feature film. Miyazaki decided to place his hopes on Nausicaa of the Valley of the Wind. If it was a success, he would use the profits to start his own animation studio, if it wasn’t… well Lupin III was still cranking out episodes.

According to legend, the earth was nearly destroyed in the seven days of fire. Mankind unleashed their most horrible weapons and only succeeded in collapsing civilization. They also created a forest of corruption. This dense fungal forest is toxic to humans and breeds enormous insects that occasionally go on rampages and destroy human settlements and spread the fungus further and further across the land.

In the secluded Valley of the Wind, a group of humans manage to carve out a wind powered society. The princess, Nausicaa (Sumi Shimamoto) spends her time exploring the fungal forest and helping her people. But when a huge airship from a distant land crashes in the valley everything changes. The airship was transporting a disturbing cargo – a huge pulsating living creature. Then Princess Kushana (Yoshiko Sakakibara) arrives with her troops to retrieve this object and captures Nausicaa to use as a hostage. It is only a matter of time before Nausicaa escapes and begins her path to save her people and possibly learn the secret of the forest of corruption and humankind’s place in this dying world.

Good Points:
  • Amazing visual design: everything from costumes to creatures
  • Glorious flying sequences that pull you into the wonder and action
  • A thematically rich story with memorable characters

Bad Points:
  • Nausicaa is rarely wrong about anything
  • Joe Hisaishi’s score is a bit rough in places
  • Feels a bit familiar, because it inspired so many later films and television series

Miyazaki brings a fully realized world to life, with so much visual depth and detail that it is staggering. The story is layered with themes, but the plot is fairly simple. The characters are fairly stock, but you could argue that this is the first film to introduce many anime character tropes. For me, the animation and visual style are what makes this film so memorable. It is an amazing sophomore effort and well worth seeking out for any animation, science fiction or fantasy fans out there.

Scores (out of 5)
Visuals: 5
Sound: 4
Acting: 4
Script: 4
Music: 4
Direction: 4
Entertainment: 4
Total:  4

In Depth Review
Nausicaa faces the darkness of her journey.
Nausicaa of the Valley of the Wind is a tricky film to write about. On the one hand it is one of the most influential anime of the 1980s, and often considered one of Miyazaki’s greatest works. On the other hand it has some flaws that come from a burgoning filmmaker who wasn’t sure if this was going to be his only shot at bringing his own material to the big screen. So he goes for broke and sometimes it doesn’t quite gel.

My other issue is that the graphic novel is really one of the best I’ve ever read. Miyazaki had time to expand and fully explore the world he created with nearly over a decade to write and draw it. The film covers only a quarter of the material the manga does. And once you read the manga with all the complexities, characters and themes, I’m sad to say that the film seems a little shallow in comparison.

The detail on the airships is impressive.
But for anyone who hasn’t had the pleasure of reading the graphic novel, Nausicaa of the Valley of the Wind will impress. There is no way it can’t. The visuals are amazing at nearly every level. Given the fact that Miyazaki had two years to design and create his vision leading up to the film version, there is a depth of detail to the world that is mind-blowing. This is right up there with Akira and Ghost in the Shell when it comes to world making details. But in some ways Nausicaa may be more impressive because it isn’t building off of a world we know, but forging a world that is familiar and yet alien.

We recognize things like tanks, swords, airships and gasmasks. But Miyazaki takes influences from various historical time periods and fuses them to make his own world. I called the civilization wind powered, but that isn’t really correct. There is a strong feudalistic feel the culture, but they have airships powered by some kind of reactors. The tanks look like pre WWII models. The armor and weapons of the Torumekians looks like something from 1400s Germany.

One example of the gas masks used in the film.
I also like how the technology and culture also shows the necessity of working with the environment to survive. When we first see the sword master Yupa (Goro Naya), he and his avian mounts are wearing unique gas masks to avoid inhaling the toxic spores. The gas masks a constant reminder of how tenuous the human grip on this world is. Nearly every character has some kind of breathing filter or apparatuses on their person… just in case.  In addition, Nausicaa mentions that her people use cast off chitin from the giant insects as tools and other useful elements. This influences the visual design; a more alien and yet organic look to much of the Valley of the Wind.

An enraged Ohmu chases our heroes.
Then there is the fascinating creature design. The giant insects, especially the mammoth Ohmu are truly a wonder to behold. The Ohmu have a real heft and weight to them that makes their rampages even more horrible. Miyazaki would use the same visual principle for the giant boars in Princess Mononoke. The flying insects are equally impressive. I also like little Teto, the fox like critter that Nausicaa adopts. The explosion of creativity of these creatures would be unmatched in Miyazaki’s films until we get to the myriad of sprits in Spirited Away.

The simple fact is that you can watch Nausicaa of the Valley of the Wind any number of times and always find some new detail to wonder at and explore.

Ship to ship battles are frequent in this world.
The action is also impressive. This is the film that Miyazaki’s love of flight really shines. Nausicaa takes to the air countless times, often on her compact and quick glider. The movie has plenty of battles between airships, with diving into clouds, hiding in the sun and plunging into the depths of the fungal forest. These scenes are fully rendered with no cheats to be seen. It actually puts some modern science fiction ship battles to shame. What makes these scenes work so well is that we feel the thrill of flying, as well as the tension and danger of aerial attacks. Miyazaki’s dynamic framing and motion play a big part in this.

But I would be remiss to mention the other main reason these scenes work so well. Composer Joe Hisaishi’s music adds to the flying scenes immensely. Nausicaa of the Valley of the Wind marks the first time Hisaishi and Miyazaki collaborated on a film. And it would lead to a fruitful partnership that would span decades. The two would bring out the best in each other, and we see the very beginnings of the wonderful thematic work of Hisaishi in this film.

Nausicaa is always ready to defend her people.
The main theme for the film is heard in the opening credits, and is used several times during the movie. It has a majestic quality, and Hisaishi’s use of piano during the theme became an instant trademark for his scores on Miyazaki’s films. Perhaps his most effective pieces is the childlike lullaby that he uses when Nausicaa bonds with the enormous Ohmu creatures. There is a haunting quality to the tune and the way Hisaishi uses it. It feels ancient and yet with the child’s voice singing “la la la” to it, the tune sounds innocent. It is one of the most memorable musical moments in 1980s anime.

But not all of the Hisaishi’s material works for me. Nausicaa of the Valley of the Wind uses some unique and very 80s synth sound effects. Some of these are so jarring they actually feel out of place during the film. Other times, the otherworldly nature of the synths works with the strange visuals on the screen. I admit some of it reminds me of early video game music for the Sega Genesis, but it does end up giving the movie a unique sound. Hisaishi would continue to use synths in his scores, and improve on how they are implemented. Here, it just feels hit and miss in effect.

An encounter with a giant insect is about to go wrong.
The sound effects are handled well. Much like the visuals, sound design for the new world is an important part of pulling the viewer in. Gunshots and the airships make familiar sounds that help ground the viewer. But the giant insects, Nausicaa’s unique glider and her insect lures all have unusual sounds. It’s a good balance of new and old that supports the film.

The first time I watched this film was with an English dub produced back in the 1980s (I’ll go a little more into that at the end of the review). So some of my memories of the film are colored by that not quite adequate dub. For this viewing I decided to give the Japanese dub a try and really liked it. Sumi does a fine job with the character of Nausicaa. She is determined, forthright and strong when she needs to be. I also liked Goro Naya’s performance as the wise and deadly Yupa. When Disney released the film on DVD they gave it a pretty solid dub featuring an impressive cast including: Patrick Stewart, Edward James Olmos, Uma Thurman and Shia LaBeouf. For some reason that dub just doesn’t quite click for me. But I think that is my own mental malfunction.

Nausicaa flying off into adventure.
As I mentioned Nausicaa of the Valley of the Wind is a pretty simple story about a young woman who discovers a secret that can change the world. She has to make hard decisions and sacrifices to do the right thing, even in the face of overwhelming odds. She must break tradition and accepted social rules to save not just her people but all of humanity. It is an overwhelming role. In the graphic novel Nausicaa finds herself sinking under its weight.

But the film doesn’t have the time or inclination to really dig into that part of the story. Instead Nausicaa is presented as nearly perfect. She never seems to doubt, never seems to waver and rarely seems to be wrong about anything. She is guided by her own virtue, and one that lines up with a prophecy mentioned in the early portion of the movie. In this way, she is a true mythic hero, one who must journey away from her home into the underworld of the fungal forest, and return with the knowledge to save humanity.

Nausicaa witnesses the horrors of war.
But this mythic status drains her of humanity (ironically). She seems too perfect, too knowledgeable and too gracious to be much more than MYTHIC HERO. But in a way, the whole film feels that way. It is a legend, with all the tropes and concepts in place. In fact the opening credits play over a tapestry showing what will be Nausicaa’s story already preserved as legend. What is interesting about Nausicaa is that she may be the least interesting character in the film, but she also went on to inspire many other characters who built off her base and grew into something greater.

For me the supporting cast of Nausicaa of the Valley of the Wind has always been more interesting. Yupa is a fascinating character. We hear a little of his travels and adventures. When he runs into enemies in the film, they all know him by an obviously impressive reputation. You want to know more about his mysterious swordsman.

Kushana unleashes the final phase of her plan
for conquest.
I also really like Princess Kushana. Her rationale for attacking the Valley of the Wind and attempting to harness the power of the terrible biological weapon all make sense once you hear her story. It becomes impossible to hate her, and she even turns into a valiant warrior of sorts. In the graphic novel she really gets to shine further during the political maneuvering of the second half of the saga.

But it really is Miyazaki’s direction that makes the familiar (and maybe overly familiar) story of Nausicaa of the Valley of the Wind work so well. The film is nearly two hours long, but it flies by as we join Nausicaa on her journey into the depths of the forest. The stunning visuals, the intense action scenes, and even the drama of the climax, that really doesn’t come as a surprise, all work together to make the film both entertaining and thought provoking.

Nausicaa may be perfect because she always seems to find the right answer for the hard questions, but those questions are ones we all must face. How far will you go to save your people? Would you kill innocents for them? Does revenge solve anything? Are humans supposed to control nature, or become supplicant to it? Do we even have a choice? Is hate really the only response to an attack? What if the attack is perfectly justified? Heavy stuff from a man who would later be best known for his child friendly films.

Featuring cast not appearing
in this film.
The film is well constructed, allowing the viewer to be pulled into the world and the story. The editing keeps everything moving along pretty well, which is why it seems a bit strange that the first North American release of Nausicaa of the Valley of the Wind was heavily edited and renamed The Warriors of the Wind. The dub simplified things a bit, and several key sequences were completely absent (causing some major rewriting of the overall plot to occur). This was how I first saw this film, and to tell the truth, I found the movie very odd and kinda creepy (I was probably around ten or eleven when I saw it). The voice actress for Nausicaa (renamed Princess Zandra) always sounded too old for her character. The Ohmu were just plain monsters in this version. And the whole thing relied more on the post-apocalyptic setting then the original version. One of my favorite things about this version was the cover art, which featured a bunch of characters who aren’t even in the movie. Poor Nausicaa is relegated to the far right.

But even in this hacked up form, the visuals enthralled me. It was such a unique looking film that I remembered it, and Hisaishi’s score for the finale scene with the Ohmu for years afterward. When I got back into anime in the late 90s, the film came up in conversation. People were describing scenes that I recognized, but from a film with a completely different name. it was an odd discovery to find out that Nausicaa of the Valley of the Wind was considered an anime classic.

Nausicaa faces her fate, because it is the right
thing to do and the right time to do it.
I think it holds that title even today. It is the start of many themes, concepts, visuals and storytelling that Hayao Miyazaki would revisit and evolve over the decades. But more than a historical starting point, the movie is just plain entertaining. It shows what a great talent Miyazaki has and he would continue to improve as the years continued. Many consider Nausicaa’s film the pinnacle of his career. I don’t hold it so high, but man was it a great way to announce his presence to the world. His follow up, Castle in the Sky would take the animator in a familiar direction, but with a new twist.

Some more of the outstanding visuals from Nausicaa of the Valley of the Wind.

The mysterious swordsman, Yupa... and his
huge, huge mustache.
A small but might tank used by Kushana's forces.
If you see this coming at you... you're dead.
Nausicaa in a gunship over a vast army of rampaging
Kushana observes her ultimate weapon.
The details inside the cockpits is amazing.
Nausicaa gives this review a thumbs up!


  1. Many people have pondered the appeal of apocalyptic fiction. Robert Brockway at "Cracked" argued that it simply is a fantasy of freedom; "We would gladly trade the continuation of the species and possibly the lives of our loved ones just to not have 'misdemeanors' be a thing anymore." Of course, many post-apocalyptic visions are authoritarian, but in that case the storyline is almost sure to be rebellion against the authority, so maybe he still is onto something. This tale appears to be one worth visiting.

    1. That is a possibility. I know that in the 80s with the cold war really feeling like it was going to heat up any minute, we got a lot of "after the bomb" films and fiction. "Nausicaa" fits easily into that mold for sure. I think that mix of mythic and apocalyptic is what makes this film feel unique in anime especially for that period. But also in the optimistic tone the film has. Things never feel really dark and hopeless, because Nausicaa herself is always striving to do the right thing and inspiring others to do so.

      Miyazaki would return to these concepts in the 90s with "Princess Mononoke" and it was be a much more cynical film.

  2. Yes, I have a copy of Nausicaa, and had it previously on VHS tape which I recorded off the SF Channel back in the 90's when they had their anime specials. I also had one of the Viz comic books of it. A lot of people seem to be fond of Princess Mononoke, which I enjoy, but prefer Nausicaa. Though I enjoy Howl's Moving Castle even before Nausicaa.

    I haven't seen all of Miyazaki's films, so I'm glad there's still many more for me to enjoy.

    1. If you ever get the chance try to obtain the rest of the comic books of this story. Miyazaki creates a really interesting dynamic with the various factions in the story. He also gives Nausicaa much more of a personality as things change in her world and she has to deal with them. It really is a grand epic.

      "Howl's Moving Castle" is a lot of fun. I'm looking forward to revisiting it during my Miyazaki retrospective (as slow going as it is turning out to be).

  3. Nice! I must make my kids watch it. They are already about to finish all the series by Andy Yeatman and now is the time to start something new. Also, the ratings are pretty good which means they are going to learn from this as well.

    1. Yeah this is a good one to start with. Plenty of adventure, cool creatures and interesting vehicles. The characters are engaging and themes are great discussion points. It may move a little slow for them and it does hit the 2 hour mark, so keep that in mind. Hope they enjoy it.